av在线成人av日本av2018年逾3500个移动互联网恶意程序被下架

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的聲音听上去並不過于嘶啞。 這個褐眼姑娘真是個機靈鬼,她用這樣一個不帶任何色彩的問題打破了 《傅雷之死》-葉永烈av在线 七成人av 談話延續了一小時。甚至說不定達到一個半小時。然後陡然間從容廳那 邊出現了一個人的身影;有人小心翼翼地走進屋來,似乎惟恐打擾我們。來 人是開克斯法爾伐。 我一馬當先。我狂熱地酷愛騎馬。我感到跳動不已奔流不息的熱血從腰 部像溪流似的潺潺流來,像真正生命的暖流,在我肌肉放松的全身循環流動。 與此同時,涼爽的清風撲面而來,吹拂著額頭和雙頰。美妙無比的清晨的空 氣︰你還能嘗到里面有夜露的滋味、松軟的泥土氣息和花草繁茂的田野的芳 香,同時急促呼吸的馬鼻噴出的溫暖、肉感的蒸汽包圍著你。清晨第一次疾 馳總使我重新振奮起來,它使勁晃動你睡意未消、僵硬發直的身體,使你感 到通體舒泰,把你身上的麻木狀態像滯重的濃霧似的一掃而空。充塞我全身 的那種輕飄飄的感覺不由自主地擴展著我的胸腔,我張汗嘴唇痛飲這迎面吹 來的清風。“快跑!快跑!”——我感到眼楮變得更加明亮,感官變得更加 活躍。在我身後響起節奏均勻的佩刀撞擊聲,戰馬噴鼻聲,馬鞍磨擦發出的 柔和的嘰嘰喳喳聲和節拍分明的沉重的馬蹄聲。這群風馳電掣的戰士和戰 馬,生氣勃勃,充滿活力,匯成一體,變成一個半人半馬的怪物。一個勁地 向前!向前!向前!快跑!快跑!快跑!啊,就這樣騎著馬一往直前,一直 騎到世界的盡頭!我成了這種歡樂的主人和創造者,我就懷著這種秘密的驕 傲,坐在馬鞍上不時回過頭去看看我手下的士兵。霎時間我發現,我的這些 好樣的輕騎兵全部換了另一副面貌。小俄羅斯人身上的那種沉重壓抑遲鈍呆 滯的神氣,那種睡眼惺松的模樣,全像煤煙似的從他們的眼里一掃而淨,他 們覺得有人在觀察他們,一個個身子都坐得更加挺直,他們咧嘴微笑,回答 我眼里流露出來的喜悅。我感到,就是這些感覺遲鈍的農家子弟也渾身浸透 了這種飛快運動的快樂,這可是人體飛行的前身啊。他們大家都和我一樣十 分快後地感覺到一種肉體上的幸福,因為自己年輕,擁有既能緊張又能放松 的力量。日本av 談話延續了一小時。甚至說不定達到一個半小時。然後陡然間從容廳那 邊出現了一個人的身影;有人小心翼翼地走進屋來,似乎惟恐打擾我們。來 人是開克斯法爾伐。

As a teacher at a language school, one of my key interests is monitoring and understanding the journey of my students’ language progress. Sometimes, it can be a little disheartening realising that perhaps my best efforts are still not enough to help students who may not be responding to the coursework. I believe that as a teacher, there must be something I can improve on which can help all my students achieve maximum progress.

Recently, I attended a session held by Pearson on The Global Scale of English. This session discusses The Global Scale of English (GSE), a standard to measure learner’s English competencies, and the GSE Teacher Toolkit. Below, I will tell you what I’ve gained from the session.

 

Quote 1

What is GSE?

The Global Scale of English, or GSE for short, is a measurement that helps teachers to measure the competencies of English learners. The GSE’s development has been based on the CEFR model. CEFR (Common European Framework of Reference) has been widely used by teachers, students, schools, and publishers to standardise language competency. It can be broken down into three groups of basic users (A), independent users (B), and proficient users (C), with two levels for each ‘user group’. CEFR contains a number of ‘can-do statements’. Each level in CEFR has its own ‘can- do statements’ which learners need to achieve in order to move to the higher level.

Below is CEFR levels and their labels:

CEFR Levels

*source: https://www.english.com/blog/addressing-the-missing-levels-with-gse/

Within schools, learners have a certain amount of time to complete a course and achieve ‘can-do statements’ of a CEFR level. As every learner’s ability and progress in learning is unique, not all learners progress at the same pace. Progress takes time, and each learner needs their own individual time to attain a certain level of competency.

Quote 2

In the long run, this creates a problem.

A learner who has studied English for a long time may be assumed to belong to a particular level of CEFR (let’s say B1), but there is possibility that the learner belongs to between A2 and B1 instead. However, since the learner is placed in a B1 class, he or she needs to keep up with B1-level expectations. This can lead to difficulties for the learner in reaching maximum progress and obtaining a satisfactory learning result at the end of an English program. Up to this point, I can very much relate this scenario with some of my students.

GSE aims to fill the gap. By quantifying each level of CEFR, GSE gives a more accurate manner of predicting learner’s competency in CEFR model. By having accurate knowledge of learner’s competency, teachers can be more precise in planning their lesson. Therefore, maximum progress of all students can take place.

Below is a comparison between CEFR and GSE:

GSE Tabel

The above presents the GSE measuring table of proficiency in all language skills and levels based on the CEFR model. As we can see, there is a wide range between some CEFR levels (A2 to B1, B1 to B2, B2 to C1). Hence, a class of A2, for example, consists of learners with competency score 30 (near A1) to 42 (almost B1). GSE helps teachers in identifying the minimum and maximum point of learners’ competency, so that they can plan lessons in which no learner is left behind.

 

Working with GSE

A teacher who is planning a lesson to suit their student’s competency may consult GSE learning objectives by visiting GSE Teacher Toolkit page, https://www.english.com/gse/teacher-toolkit/user/lo . There is a GSE/CEFR scale, where buttons can be moved horizontally based on the score range intended.

For example, if you have a class with A2 level, you can drag the left button on the scale to the minimum A2 score (30) and drag the right button to the maximum A2 score (42). See the picture below for an example:

Conference

 

On the left side there is a box to choose learner type and skill. For example if we chose to combine ‘adult learners’ and ‘reading’, by clicking the ‘show results’ you will get 22 learning objectives based on order of GSE scores.

Conference

 

Besides learning objectives, GSE Teacher Toolkit also provides Grammar and Vocabulary sections.

Conference

 

In the Grammar section, GSE Teacher Toolkit provides downloadable activities based on the chosen grammar category.

Conference

 

In the Vocabulary section, GSE Teacher Toolkit provides pronunciation with American and British accents, definitions, as well as collocation.

Conference

All the above facilities are easily accessed and free to use. These conveniences do not only save teacher’s time and energy, but most importantly they help teachers prepare the right course materials so that their learners get opportunities to reach maximum progress.

 

Conclusion

The Global Scale of English (GSE) provides at least four advantages for both teachers and learners:

  • Teacher obtain a better understanding of students’ individual competency. Therefore, they can prepare and adapt the right course materials in order to suit students’ needs.

  • The GSE Teacher Toolkit makes lesson planning simple, accurate, and easy to use.

  • Learners are given more opportunities to achieve maximum progress in learning English.

  • Recognised globally, GSE helps students to gain confidence in their language ability and competency acceptance.

To learn more about the GSE Teacher’s Toolkit, please visit here.

 

BIODATA

WINDA HAPSARI is an English teacher and teacher educator at LIA Language School, Indonesia. She has been working with a variety of learners for about two decades. She earned her master’s degree in educational psychology from Universitas Indonesia. Besides teaching, she also conducts classroom / educational research and publishes some of her works. Her recent article, which she co- authored with a colleague, titled Teaching Reading to Encourage Critical Thinking and Collaborative Work is published by Springer in early 2018. Her interest includes areas of teacher professional development, teaching language skills, and motivation.