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一九六○年十一月十三日 最近我收到杰維茨基教授的來信,他去夏得了肺炎之後,仍未完全康復,如今在療養院中,他特別指出聰在英國灌錄的唱片彈奏蕭邦時,有個過分強調的retardo[緩慢處理]比如說,Ballad[敘事曲]彈奏得比原曲長兩分鐘,杰教授說在波蘭時,他對你這種傾向,曾加抑制,不過你現在好像又故態復萌,我很明白演奏是極受當時情緒影響的,不過聰的retardomood[緩慢處理手法]出現得有點過分頻密,倒是不容否認的,因為多年來,我跟杰教授都有同感,親愛的孩子,請你多留意,不要太耽溺于個人的概念或感情之中,我相信你會時常听自己的錄音(我知道,你在家中一定保有一整套唱片),在節拍方面對自己要求越嚴格越好!彌拉在這方面也一定會幫你審核的。一個人拘泥不化的毛病,毫無例外是由于有特殊癖好及不切實的感受而下自知,或固執得不願承認而引起的。趁你還在事業的起點,最好控制你這種傾向,杰教授還提議需要有一個好的鋼琴家兼有修養的藝術家給你不時指點,既然你說起過有一名協助過AntlieFlscher[安妮費希爾]?的匈牙利女士,杰教授就大力鼓勵你去見見她,你去過了嗎?要是還沒去,你在二月三日至十八日之間,就有足夠的時間前去求教,無論如何,能得到一位年長而有修養的藝術家指點,一定對你大有裨益。亚洲在线av极品无码 不卡av电影在线 還有你的感情問題怎樣了?來信一字未提,我們卻一日未嘗去心,我知道你的性格,也想像得到你的環境;你一向濫于用情;而即使不采主動,被人追求時也免不了虛榮心感到得意︰這是人之常情,于藝術家為尤甚,因此更需警惕。你成年已久,到了二十五歲也該理性堅強一些了,單憑一時沖動的行為也該能多克制一些了。不知事實上是否如此?要找永久的伴侶,也得多用理智考慮勿被感情蒙蔽!情人的眼光一結婚就會變,變得你自己都不相信︰事先要不想到這一著,必招後來的無窮痛苦。除了藝術以外,你在外做人方面就是這一點使我們操心。因為這一點也間接影響到國家民族的榮譽,英國人對男女問題的看法始終清教徒氣息很重,想你也有所發覺,知道如何自愛了;自愛即所以報答父母,報答國家。 一九五六年八月一日每日更新在线观看av

As a teacher at a language school, one of my key interests is monitoring and understanding the journey of my students’ language progress. Sometimes, it can be a little disheartening realising that perhaps my best efforts are still not enough to help students who may not be responding to the coursework. I believe that as a teacher, there must be something I can improve on which can help all my students achieve maximum progress.

Recently, I attended a session held by Pearson on The Global Scale of English. This session discusses The Global Scale of English (GSE), a standard to measure learner’s English competencies, and the GSE Teacher Toolkit. Below, I will tell you what I’ve gained from the session.

 

Quote 1

What is GSE?

The Global Scale of English, or GSE for short, is a measurement that helps teachers to measure the competencies of English learners. The GSE’s development has been based on the CEFR model. CEFR (Common European Framework of Reference) has been widely used by teachers, students, schools, and publishers to standardise language competency. It can be broken down into three groups of basic users (A), independent users (B), and proficient users (C), with two levels for each ‘user group’. CEFR contains a number of ‘can-do statements’. Each level in CEFR has its own ‘can- do statements’ which learners need to achieve in order to move to the higher level.

Below is CEFR levels and their labels:

CEFR Levels

*source: https://www.english.com/blog/addressing-the-missing-levels-with-gse/

Within schools, learners have a certain amount of time to complete a course and achieve ‘can-do statements’ of a CEFR level. As every learner’s ability and progress in learning is unique, not all learners progress at the same pace. Progress takes time, and each learner needs their own individual time to attain a certain level of competency.

Quote 2

In the long run, this creates a problem.

A learner who has studied English for a long time may be assumed to belong to a particular level of CEFR (let’s say B1), but there is possibility that the learner belongs to between A2 and B1 instead. However, since the learner is placed in a B1 class, he or she needs to keep up with B1-level expectations. This can lead to difficulties for the learner in reaching maximum progress and obtaining a satisfactory learning result at the end of an English program. Up to this point, I can very much relate this scenario with some of my students.

GSE aims to fill the gap. By quantifying each level of CEFR, GSE gives a more accurate manner of predicting learner’s competency in CEFR model. By having accurate knowledge of learner’s competency, teachers can be more precise in planning their lesson. Therefore, maximum progress of all students can take place.

Below is a comparison between CEFR and GSE:

GSE Tabel

The above presents the GSE measuring table of proficiency in all language skills and levels based on the CEFR model. As we can see, there is a wide range between some CEFR levels (A2 to B1, B1 to B2, B2 to C1). Hence, a class of A2, for example, consists of learners with competency score 30 (near A1) to 42 (almost B1). GSE helps teachers in identifying the minimum and maximum point of learners’ competency, so that they can plan lessons in which no learner is left behind.

 

Working with GSE

A teacher who is planning a lesson to suit their student’s competency may consult GSE learning objectives by visiting GSE Teacher Toolkit page, https://www.english.com/gse/teacher-toolkit/user/lo . There is a GSE/CEFR scale, where buttons can be moved horizontally based on the score range intended.

For example, if you have a class with A2 level, you can drag the left button on the scale to the minimum A2 score (30) and drag the right button to the maximum A2 score (42). See the picture below for an example:

Conference

 

On the left side there is a box to choose learner type and skill. For example if we chose to combine ‘adult learners’ and ‘reading’, by clicking the ‘show results’ you will get 22 learning objectives based on order of GSE scores.

Conference

 

Besides learning objectives, GSE Teacher Toolkit also provides Grammar and Vocabulary sections.

Conference

 

In the Grammar section, GSE Teacher Toolkit provides downloadable activities based on the chosen grammar category.

Conference

 

In the Vocabulary section, GSE Teacher Toolkit provides pronunciation with American and British accents, definitions, as well as collocation.

Conference

All the above facilities are easily accessed and free to use. These conveniences do not only save teacher’s time and energy, but most importantly they help teachers prepare the right course materials so that their learners get opportunities to reach maximum progress.

 

Conclusion

The Global Scale of English (GSE) provides at least four advantages for both teachers and learners:

  • Teacher obtain a better understanding of students’ individual competency. Therefore, they can prepare and adapt the right course materials in order to suit students’ needs.

  • The GSE Teacher Toolkit makes lesson planning simple, accurate, and easy to use.

  • Learners are given more opportunities to achieve maximum progress in learning English.

  • Recognised globally, GSE helps students to gain confidence in their language ability and competency acceptance.

To learn more about the GSE Teacher’s Toolkit, please visit here.

 

BIODATA

WINDA HAPSARI is an English teacher and teacher educator at LIA Language School, Indonesia. She has been working with a variety of learners for about two decades. She earned her master’s degree in educational psychology from Universitas Indonesia. Besides teaching, she also conducts classroom / educational research and publishes some of her works. Her recent article, which she co- authored with a colleague, titled Teaching Reading to Encourage Critical Thinking and Collaborative Work is published by Springer in early 2018. Her interest includes areas of teacher professional development, teaching language skills, and motivation.